The first to offer degrees, the University of Melbourne , enrolled its first student in The largest, Monash University , has an enrolment of over 70, students—more than any other Australian university. Victoria has 18 government-run institutions of "technical and further education" TAFE.
The first vocational institution in the state was the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute established in , which is now the Melbourne Athenaeum. More than 1, adult education organisations are registered to provide recognised TAFE programs. In , there were about , students enrolled in vocational education programs in the state.
The State Library of Victoria is the State's research and reference library. It is responsible for collecting and preserving Victoria's documentary heritage and making it available through a range of services and programs. Material in the collection includes books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps, pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases. In addition, local governments maintain local lending libraries, typically with multiple branches in their respective municipal areas.
The state of Victoria is the second largest economy in Australia after New South Wales, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product. The economy grew by 1. Finance and insurance is Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the health care and social assistance sector is the state's biggest employer.
The shift towards service industries in the preceding decades has seen manufacturing lose its mantle as Victoria's largest employer and income producer. Victorian farms range from small horticultural outfits to large-scale livestock and grain productions. A quarter of farmland is used to grow consumable crops. It is also a leader in stone fruit production. The main vegetable crops include asparagus, broccoli, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes.
Last year, , tonnes of pears and , tonnes of tomatoes were produced. Victoria also exports live sheep to the Middle East for meat and to the rest of the world for breeding. More than , tonnes of wool clip was also produced—one-fifth of the Australian total. Victoria is the centre of dairy farming in Australia.
The state also has 2. Most abalone and rock lobster is exported to Asia. Victoria has a diverse range of manufacturing enterprises and Melbourne is considered Australia's most important industrial city. The post-World War II manufacturing boom was fuelled by international investment; attracted to the state by the availability of cheap land close to the city and inexpensive energy from the Latrobe Valley. Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the state's most valuable manufacturing activity, followed by food and beverage products, petrochemicals and chemicals.
Prominent manufacturing plants in the state include the Portland and Point Henry aluminium smelters, owned by Alcoa ; oil refineries at Geelong and Altona ; a major petrochemical facility at Laverton ; and Victorian-based CSL , a global biotechnology company that produces vaccines and plasma products, among others. Victoria also plays an important role in providing goods for the defence industry.
Victoria proportionally relies on manufacturing more than any other state in Australia, constituting 8. However, this proportion has been declining for three decades; in at the time of the early s recession manufacturing constituted Since , manufacturing employment has also fallen in both aggregate , to , workers and proportional The strong Australian dollar as a result of the s mining boom , small population and isolation, high wage base and the general shift of manufacturing production towards developing countries have been cited as some of the reasons for this decline.
Historically, Victoria has been a hub for the manufacturing plants of the major car brands Ford , Toyota and Holden ; however, closure announcements by all three companies in the s has meant Australia will completely lose their car manufacturing industry by the end of Holden's announcement occurred in May following Ford's decision in December the previous year Ford's Victorian plants, in Broadmeadows and Geelong, closed in October Victoria adopted the Torrens system of land registration with the Real Property Act The common law system continues to apply to all other private landholdings.
The oil and gas industries are centred off the coast of Gippsland in the state's east, while brown coal mining and power generation is based in the Latrobe Valley.
Brown coal is Victoria's leading mineral, with 66 million tonnes mined each year for electricity generation in the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. Victoria also produces limited amounts of gypsum and kaolin. The service industries sector is the fastest growing component of the Victorian economy. It includes the wide range of activities generally classified as financial and professional services; health care and social assistance, education, transportation, IT and communication services, government services and wholesale and retail trade.
Most service industries are located in Melbourne and the state's larger regional centres. As of —16, service industries employed over three-quarters of Victorian workers and more than three-quarters of the state's GSP. Finance and insurance as a group provide more value-add to the economy than any other economic activity in Victoria while health care and social assistance employ the most workers.
Major events that explore cultural diversity, music and sports play a big part in Victoria's tourism. Victoria's northern border follows a straight line from Cape Howe to the start of the Murray River and then follows the Murray River as the remainder of the northern border. On the Murray River, the border is the southern bank of the river.
This precise definition was not established until , when a ruling by Justice Ninian Stephen of the High Court of Australia settled the question as to which state had jurisdiction in the unlawful death of a man on an island in the middle of the river. The ruling clarified that no part of the watercourse is in Victoria. It is bordered by South Australia to the west and shares Australia's shortest land border with Tasmania. There are extensive semi-arid plains to the west and northwest.
There is an extensive series of river systems in Victoria. Most notable is the Murray River system. The state symbols include the pink heath state flower , Leadbeater's possum state animal and the helmeted honeyeater state bird. For other cities and towns, see list of localities Victoria and local government areas of Victoria.
Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid temperate with hot summers in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state. Winters along the coast of the state, particularly around Melbourne , are relatively mild see chart at right. Victoria's southernmost position on the Australian mainland means it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories.
The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's mildest climate. Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region.
The Mallee and upper Wimmera are Victoria's warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby semi-deserts. Victoria's highest maximum temperature of The Victorian Alps in the northeast are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east—west through the centre of Victoria. Victoria is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania. Rainfall in Victoria increases from south to the northeast, with higher averages in areas of high altitude.
Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous northeast. Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District , making them both leading farming areas. Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was Average January maximum temperatures: Victoria's north is almost always hotter than coastal and mountainous areas.
Average July maximum temperatures: Victoria's hills and ranges are coolest during winter. Snow also falls there. Victoria's rainfall is concentrated in the mountainous north-east and coast. Victoria has the highest population density in any state in Australia, with population centres spread out over most of the state; only the far northwest and the Victorian Alps lack permanent settlement. The Victorian road network services the population centres, with highways generally radiating from Melbourne and other major cities and rural centres with secondary roads interconnecting the highways to each other.
Rail transport in Victoria is provided by several private and public railway operators who operate over government-owned lines. There are also several smaller freight operators and numerous tourist railways operating over lines which were once parts of a state-owned system.
Melbourne has the world's largest tram network ,  currently operated by Yarra Trams. As well as being a popular form of public transport, over the last few decades trams have become one of Melbourne's major tourist attractions. There are also tourist trams operating over portions of the former Ballarat and Bendigo systems. There are also tramway museums at Bylands and Haddon. Melbourne Airport is the major domestic and international gateway for the state.
Avalon Airport is the state's second busiest airport, which complements Essendon and Moorabbin Airports to see the remainder of Melbourne's air traffic. There are no fewer than 27 other airports in the state with no scheduled flights. The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia,  and is located in Melbourne on the mouth of the Yarra River , which is at the head of Port Phillip.
Additional seaports are at Westernport , Geelong , and Portland. As of October , smoking tobacco is prohibited in the sheltered areas of train stations, and tram and bus stops—between and , people were issued with infringement notices. The state government announced a plan in October to prohibit smoking on all Victorian railway station platforms and raised tram stops.
Victoria's major utilities include a collection of brown-coal-fired power stations, particularly in the Latrobe Valley. Victoria's water infrastructure includes a series of dams and reservoirs, predominantly in Central Victoria, that hold and collect water for much of the state. The water collected is of a very high quality and requires little chlorination treatment, giving the water a taste more like water collected in a rainwater tank.
In regional areas however, such as in the west of the state, chlorination levels are much higher. The Victorian Water Grid consists of a number of new connections and pipelines being built across the State. This allows water to be moved around Victoria to where it is needed most and reduces the impact of localised droughts in an era thought to be influenced by climate change. Major projects already completed as part of the Grid include the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline and the Goldfields Superpipe.
Victoria's newest public holiday is Grand Final Friday. The holiday is celebrated the day before the AFL Grand Final and was designated in "to celebrate Australia's national game". Victoria's cricket team, the Victorian Bushrangers play in the national Sheffield Shield cricket competition.
It hosted the Australian Masters golf tournament from to Netball is a big part of sport in Victoria. Australia's most prestigious footrace, the Stawell Gift , is an annual event. Victoria is also home to the Aussie Millions poker tournament, the richest in the Southern Hemisphere. The Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival is one of the biggest horse racing events in the world and is one of the world's largest sporting events. Victoria has 4 sister states: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other places named Victoria, see Victoria Places.
Local government areas of Victoria. Birth rate and fertility rate in Australia. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Geology of Victoria and Geography of Victoria. Transport in Melbourne and Rail transport in Victoria. The enterprise provides inter-city services to a number of regional cities in the state. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 26 March Department of Premier and Cabinet.
Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 17 January — via National Library of Australia. Retrieved 24 January — via National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 26 January — via National Library of Australia. The Sydney Morning Herald. Sunny Sydneysiders might consider themselves much more open-minded and free thinking than their archetypal black-clad Melbourne cousins.
But taking the political temperature of the two states shows that supposedly dour Victorians are loosening their corsets and becoming much more progressive. Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 12 February Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 24 February Check date values in: Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 22 August Victoria's best beaches Archived 3 February at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 2 January A JEALOUS boyfriend punched his partner and dragged her out of a petrol station by her hair before kidnapping her in the culmination of a campaign of abuse.
POLICE say a year-old woman was killed and left in a bathtub in her Melbourne home for eight months while those close to her pretended she was still alive.
A MUM sat with her head bowed in court on Friday accused of murdering her son. Yesterday she made a frantic phone call. HE WAS the year-old who masterminded armed hold-ups of jewellery stores with hammers. But he broke down when sent to jail.
A BED facility tucked away next to a golf course in Melbourne is home to our most violent, unwell people. Last week, one escaped. A WOMAN who was sleeping in the same room as her young son woke to an intruder holding a knife to her throat as three masked men robbed her home in Melbourne overnight. The shooting left a man critical and police hunting a gunman. A cyclist punched in her windscreen, cutting her face with shattered glass.
A MAN was asleep on his couch when thugs took knives from his kitchen and held them to his throat. The victim now has to make a tough decision.
FROM this phone booth, a young, pregnant woman just days away from giving birth received a mysterious midnight call. She was never seen again. Days before, he made a disturbing threat. Of course you would, says one mum. TWO men raided a Melbourne milk bar armed with a baseball bat and an axe. He was allegedly the victim of terror. New information shows the opposite. THE elderly woman who was bashed and left in a pool of her own blood has died from her injuries on the same day her accused smiled in court.
WHEN being interviewed by police after sexually assaulting and murdering a young girl, this killer had a chilling question for the cops. TWO teenagers have been interviewed by police over the horrific Snapchat video of a baby being waterboarded and having a plastic bag shoved over its head.
Heavily-armed police were unable to find the man they believed was holed up in a home with a gun. But they had an inch machete and were taking him to a place ominously named Lake Surprise.
MORE than 65 high-powered handguns are heading for the Melbourne underworld after a group of masked and armed men held up a gun shop. POLICE have arrested a man in relation to a violent carjacking in Melbourne — in which a teenager was bashed so badly that she needs plastic surgery.
We collect information about the content including ads you use across this site and use it to make both advertising and content more relevant to you on our network and other sites. Find out more about our policy and your choices, including how to opt-out. Woman raped days after fatal attack JUST days after the death of Eurydice Dixon, a man has allegedly abducted and raped a woman in her 30s in the same inner-Melbourne suburb.
Man charged with murdering his mum A MAN has been accused of killing his own mother after her body was found inside a southwest Melbourne home on Friday. Comanchero bikies arrested in dawn raids POLICE broke down doors and handcuffed 14 bikies they believe were part of a hit squad responsible for a driveby shooting in Melbourne in March.
Man dead in stabbing attack A MAN is dead and a female companion injured after an attack at a Melbourne home last night. Police attacked at wild house party A GROUP of African youths jumped on cars and pelted police with objects as partygoers turned violent on the streets of North Melbourne.
Teen faces court over fatal hit-run crash A TEEN charged over a horror crash that killed a newlywed couple has been remanded in custody after facing court for the first time. Bikie ambush caught on camera THIS is the terrifying moment two men storm a tattoo parlour in Melbourne, firing nine shots as bystanders flee. Bad burglar makes humiliating mistake THIS is embarrassing.
Housemates lived with dead body for months POLICE say a year-old woman was killed and left in a bathtub in her Melbourne home for eight months while those close to her pretended she was still alive. Baby-faced crim whimpers in court HE WAS the year-old who masterminded armed hold-ups of jewellery stores with hammers. Night of terror for Melbourne family A WOMAN who was sleeping in the same room as her young son woke to an intruder holding a knife to her throat as three masked men robbed her home in Melbourne overnight....